Dedicated to the military history and civilization of the Eastern Roman Empire (330 to 1453)

"Time in its irresistible and ceaseless flow carries along on its flood all created things and drowns them in the depths of obscurity."

- - - - Princess Anna Comnena (1083–1153) - Byzantine historian

Friday, July 7, 2017

Defending Byzantine Spain - Limes in Spania

The Limitanei were the static frontier guard troops that replaced the legions in the fourth century CE. The Romans were responding to the fact their long Danube and Rhine frontiers were subject to constant barbarian raids and that their cities were no longer secure.  The Limitanei may have been stationed in Byzantine Spania.
Byzantine Spania

The reestablished Eastern Roman province of Spania began with the Emperor Justinian in 552AD.

The Emperor sent troops to Spania to take sides in an internal civil war. Which side the Romans helped is unclear. But like many such forces over the centuries that were sent to "help" the locals they did not want to leave once the work was done. Thus the Eastern Roman province of Spania was created and part of Spain was once again Roman.

The province only lasted until 624 (only 72 years). The Visigoths took advantage of the Persian Empire's conquest of Roman Syria, Anatolia and Egypt to crush and absorb a helpless Roman Spain that could expect zero reinforcements from a hard pressed Constantinople.

That brings me to a 2010 article I found on Google:  Defending Byzantine Spain: Frontiers and Diplomacy by Jamie Wood.

Talk about a specialized subject!

The bad part is copy and pasting does not work on his site. So I will have to so a summary of his findings.

Visigoth Warrior 

The Conquest

In 551 or 552 one of the Visigothic factions asked the Romans for help in a civil war.  In July, 552 the Romans won the Battle of Taginae in central Italy. The Gothic Wars in Italy were coming to an end.

It was perhaps at this point extra Roman troops became available to send to Spain.  It is unclear how many troops were sent or even who the commander of the force was.

Some claim the expedition commander was Liberius, the Praetorian Prefect of Italy.  This is doubtful as Liberius was 80 plus years old at this point and no doubt had his hands full in Italy.  Liberius (under Justinian's orders?) may have ordered troops to Spain as part of Justinian's plan to reconquer the West.

How many troops were sent? There are no records. It would have to have been a large enough force to not only defend itself but to engage any serious enemy. An army of 3,000 to 5,000 men would have met those needs and would be typical of the period.

The army was probably sent in 552 and made landfall in June or July. Roman forces landed probably at the mouth of the Guadalete or perhaps Málaga and joined with Visigoth allies and marched south from Mérida towards Seville in August or September 552. 

The war dragged on for two more years. Liberius returned to Constantinople by May 553 and it is likely that a second Roman force from Italy, which had only recently been pacified after the Gothic War, landed at Cartagena in early March 555 and marched inland to Baza (Basti) in order to join up with their compatriots near Seville. 

Their landing at Cartagena was violent. The native population, which included the family of Leander of Seville, was well disposed to the Visigoths and the Roman government of the city was forced to suppress their freedoms, an oppression which lasted decades into their occupation. Leander and most of his family fled and his writings preserve the strong anti-Byzantine sentiment.

Athanagild, the new king of the Goths, quickly tried to rid Spain of the Byzantines, but failed. The Byzantines occupied many coastal cities in Baetica and this region was to remain a Byzantine province until its reconquest by the Visigoths barely seventy years later.

Reconstruction concept of a Limes mile castle along Hadrian's Wall

Limes in Spania?

The conquest began with the Roman reconquest of Septem (modern Ceuta) in North Africa.  A garrison and naval force was stationed there under the command of a Tribune who was responsible for monitoring event in Spain and Gaul. The Balearic Islands were also rapidly occupied. These twin actions helped secure Roman North Africa from attacks by Visigoth Spain.

But once the Romans has reoccupied southern Spain the question remain on how to defend it from invasion.

The most prevalent theory is Roman southern Spain was defended by a limes-style fortified frontier.

A popular theory is the Spania limes consisted of a network of fortified cities interspersed with smaller defensive positions.  More advanced positions, Castra, would be linked by roads and defended by Limitanei troops.

The author of the above study trashes the idea of a Limes Spania.  I would disagree.  The Romans always fortified their frontier outposts.  If the Byzantines could fortify and man outposts in the deserts of Libya and Tunisia there is no reason to think they would not do the same in Spain.

The budget of Constantinople was always tight. I have no doubt Roman troops in Spania took over existing Visigoth Castra and cities and repaired or expanded defenses.

Though there is little "proof" of a Spania Limes the fact that for 70 years the province was not overrun by Visigothic armies is indirect evidence that serious fortifications backed by Roman troops were in place.

The Visagoths only made advances in Spain when the Persians conquered Roman Syria, Mesopotamia, Palestine and Egypt.  We can conclude that military pressure in the east forced Constantinople to strip outlying provinces like Spania of troops so they could join the war against Persia.

Only with the Spania Limes under or unmanned could the Visigoths drive out the Romans in 624.

Map showing Byzantine Spain
and North Africa c. 580

The Walls of Ceuta, North Africa
Ceuta was directly across from, and offered support to, Byzantine Spania. The fortifications were originally built by the Byzantines and later improved on by the Portuguese and Spanish in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries. Ceuta is still ruled by Spain.
See More:
Byzantine Morocco

Diplomacy and Defense

War is expensive and the outcome often uncertain. So warfare was often the last resort.

The Eastern Romans of the period had no problem using force to achieve their goals.  But it was often more productive to use proxies, diplomacy or to manipulate factions in neighboring nations.  An anonymous Byzantine treatise on strategy states:
  • "Negotiating for peace may be chose before other means, since it might very well offer the best prospect for protecting our own interests."
In a number of cases the Byzantines may have taken advantage of dissent within the Visigothic kingdom.  In 571 and 576 the Visigoths put down revolts in Cordoba and Orospeda which just happened to border Spania.  A 580s rebellion may also have been Byzantine inspired. When the revolt was defeated the family of the rebellion leader fled to Spania and the protection of Roman troops.

Keeping your enemy divided was perhaps more important than the number of Roman troops stationed in the province.


It appears a mint was established in the province. Gold coins were produced locally that matched those from other Roman mints.

The chief administrative official in Spania was the magister militum Spaniae, meaning "master of the military of Spain." The magister militum governed civil and military affairs in the province and was subordinate only to the Emperor. Typically the magister was a member of the highest aristocratic class and bore the rank of patrician. The office, though it only appears in records for the first time in 589, was probably a creation of Justinian, as was the mint, which issued provincial currency until the end of the province (c. 624).

The first known governor, Comenciolus, repaired the gates of Cartagena in lieu of the "barbarians" (i.e. the Visigoths) and left an inscription (dated 1 September 589) in the city which survives to this day. It is in Latin and may reflect the continued use of Latin as the administrative language of the province.

The fact that high level Patricans were sent to Spania suggests there was a lot more at stake than a few coastal towns. That the province was considered important and extended much further inland.

Coinciding with the Persian invasion of the east, by the 610s and 620s the number of references to Visigothic aggression increased. Letters show Roman cities were taken, territory lost and prisoners captured.

No doubt troops were withdrawn to fight in either the Balkans or against the Persians. Weakened it was only a matter of time and the province fell to the Visigoths in 624.

Limes Fortifications in Spain?
Eastern Roman rule in Spania lasted only 70 years so a full blown Limes system may not have developed.  But in an age where might makes right something was in place that for decades kept the Visigothic armies from invading. Most likely it was a somewhat less formal series of defensive fortifications.

Reconstruction of a Limes strongpoint.

The Western Roman Empire in 565 AD
In yellow are the lands re-conquered by the Emperor Justinian
and returned to the Roman Empire including Spania.

(Byzantine Spain)      (Spania)


Anonymous said...

Beach holidays , made this last post a weak one .
That research need some emprovement .
I know sources are scarce , but maybe to focus on Procopius again . You are fond of his writhings , and we all agree with it . He got a kind of well sound depiction of events .
Neverdeless . Many Thanks .

Anonymous said...



Anonymous said...




Gary said...

A "weak" post???? You try finding documents on 1,400 year old events in obscure parts of Europe.

Anonymous said...

Weak .Yeah .A found it a lesser post of you . Maybe for that holiday gap .
Few lines .
You could , as in another good posts of yours , put some lines from Procopius , if he got something on Spain . It made a close picture .
I found a so call Secret History of Procopius , from a so Richard Atwater in 1927 ( but i dunno if those are fake or not ) , i read a few lines , its a bundle of gossip , and state affairs , and maybe is a real story , cause if Procopius was Justinean dear historian , in some lines from him , we saw that he undervalue Justinean rule in some ways.
Overburden tax on people , wrong ways to face the border states or tribes , by bribe them without need , most lavish expenses in the royal house , Theodora wishes and ressentment put on senators , and people , and a envy of Belisarius reputation , that made Justinean do the wrong military moves , and strategy .
He was renown for those buildings , as Hagia Sophia , but in it , and on military adventures to reborn the Roman Empire , he spend the royal treasury , and only the church could help in out after. Then came the plague in 541, and 542 that depleted fields , and cities , and so put a hard stretch on military defense of increase border empire foes.
He was renown also for those law collection that , europe use from many centuries thereafter.
Its a kind of a hard balance on him, cause he was a sucessefull ruler , but his achievements , and burden , came down after on others , and things never came easy .
I think that he came a little later , if he achieve many things .
If that expedition from Leo the Thraciam ( 457-474 ), a few years before on 1.000 ships , and 100.000 soldies could face , and get rid of the north africa vandals , things might be diferente. Then they could sustain the people of italy with grain , and armies , and maybe to start a more resolute move to restore the whole roman empire , if not those frankish lands . But then maybe the church could help as Clóvis convertion could help too ( 466-511 ).
So many ifs , and thats , doesn`t change the past , to turn the future in another way .
Its a loss for the whole mankind that , they cannot achieve to secure the borders , from persians ( if heraclius did his best to it and won ) , and then arabs ( as they lost for many of the reasons that i call in this post , and others , as military wrong strategy , scarce military men , wrong moves on allies , and undervaluation of the adversary .
On that came those 1.400 years that you blame of old events on obscure parts of europe .
On that , as the Vatican rule out to open his books online , you may found on US and Europe scolar institutions that nowadays release theirs books , and thesis online .
You better go faster , cause theres a trend to erase , or downgrade not PC interpretation of facts , and some views of history , as in europe since the 50`s , as a marxista bunch of french scolars view history evolution as a unique way of marxist interpretation of economics , and merely class struggle .
Hope you are now more relax after those holidays , and offer us a better post next time.

Gary said...

Start your own blog

Anonymous said...

I got no time to research , or college graduation knowledge in history , and lack the skills , and the will , to blog, or purpose . That you have , i wonder.
A mere sincere avaluation , was a fair thing to do on your last post, or posts , as i do in other ocasions to congrate on those . Don`t be harsh .
I wait for the next from you .
From above ypu read : KTGW
I mean : Keep the good work

Anonymous said...

another :


Gustavo Pedroza said...

Parabéns pelo Blog. O texto está colocado com termos corretos, e com vínculos das histórias de um passado distante, pouco comentado em meu país. Grato.

Anonymous said...

oi ze carioca !!!
achas que o tal de gary da california , vai de entender teu português ?

Anonymous said...

oxé ... cê sabe qui neymar vai jogar para um tal de pst ?
porra de time ... levou 6 do barcilona
agora um time mercenário sem tradição , vai di comprar neymar ...
como diz linekar ... depois do barcilona é só a descer

força timão

Anonymous said...

pst : kilube dimerda

Anonymous said...

onti o kilube dos mercenários psg , apesentôu Neymar ... muito caboclos, os servos parisienses ... nem o clube é deles ...~
é lá de um milionário do pitrole , estrangero, qui nunca tralalhô um dia que fosse nos vida ...
o kilube é dumerda , num ganhou nada nos europa ...
só mercenários ... nã tem tradição , nem nada ...
neymar fez mal em sair
foi pesetero
no caso petroeureiro

Anonymous said...

parece que outro kilube que não ganha nada , é o man city ?
gastam montes de reais . mas nem um titulo na europa que jeito tenha ... é no que dá kilubes mercenários

Anonymous said...

oi xenti !!!
mais outro kilube dimerda ... southampton clube mercenário

Anonymous said...

o watiford ganhou do shouthampton este fim de semana ...

Anonymous said...

oi genti
comé ?!
o PSG já saiu eliminado , mais uma vez ... é no qui dá kilubes mercenários , sem tradição nem nada ... nem alma
agora foi o Man city ... outro kilube mercenário que foi eliminado pela alma de liverpool ...
é no qui dá kilubes mercenário !!!!
gastas montes de euros e nada de titalos ...

Anonymous said...

oi genti
cácá PSG mercenário clube mais uma vez eliminado
desta pelo man United
é no qui dá kilubes mercenários
gasta monte de euros e nada de titalos
pô o sinhô dono deve tá fulioso
só kilube di merda
a be se man city outo kilube mecenálio vai safar

Anonymous said...

look gary
once more time mercenary footbaal team from Paris France knockout from competition neverdeless full of petrogas dollars from no working people on earth sitting buns , "do nothing useful"
if byzantium kept the empire , maybe things diferente now , and humanity thrive better than today
sure we won`t see those footage yesterday of ISIS brides calling to go back to finland or britain for "regreting" the adventure of "chopping head land" , and now seek state pensions and alimony from fatso european , and devil USA states
best regards to that Omar girl genuine american from Minnesota … you are breeding the snakes egg from nazifascism as we sell out in europe too

Anonymous said...

hoje sorteio Champions
quem calhou com o PSG ?
rah rah rah rah !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

e o City ? acaso irá ganhá ao judeos do Spurs
rah rah rah rah !!!!!!!!!!! , City mercenário kilube no ganha Champions , pô !!!!

Anonymous said...

oi genti !!!!
MCity perdeu para os judeos dos Spurs
kilube mercenário no ganha Champions , pô !!!!

Anonymous said...

oi genti !!!!

O futuro de Neymar no Paris Saint-Germain não parece nada claro, depois do presidente do clube francês Nasser Al-Khelaïfi confirmar ao diário L’Équipe que “não quer ver mais comportamentos de estrelas”, deixando assim a possibilidade da saída de um dos seus craques.

Com a possibilidade de Neymar abandonar já neste verão o Parque dos Príncipes, os dirigentes do emblema gaulês têm já têm um leque de seis opções para suceder ao astro brasileiro, segundo informou o Mundo Deportivo, nesta segunda-feira.

vedeta não compra Champions !!!
sem o Félix ainda vai ser pior
deve vir o Ronaldo , pois a Juventus vai dar broma da grandi com o Sarro qui vem do Chelsea !!!
rah rah rah

Anonymous said...

Félix is a hoax
he plays s***
soon or later Athletic kick in out for Serie A , or France

Anonymous said...

as another Chanato Sancho ( aka Renato Sancho )

Anonymous said...

congrats .
i knew it of course .Hope the kids will be all right .
what other option ? . thats only 2 to bring on
hope you never Forget who`s the sob "that don`t use the party card " that at first tell and to write you both for consulting this or that

Anonymous said...

financial flies and coffing turkeys

Anonymous said...

where´s Chanato ?

Anonymous said...

the chanato spaniard score two goals on poor ossassuna

our footlosers are exstatics about it