Dedicated to the military history and civilization of the Eastern Roman Empire (330 to 1453)

"Time in its irresistible and ceaseless flow carries along on its flood all created things and drowns them in the depths of obscurity."

- - - - Princess Anna Comnena (1083–1153) - Byzantine historian

Friday, May 25, 2012

Byzantine Fortress of Maiden's Castle

Maiden's Castle off the southern coast of Turkey.

Byzantine Fortress  -  Kizkalesi Castle or Maiden's Castle and Korykos Castle 

Corycus  was an ancient city in Cilicia TrachaeaAnatolia, located at the mouth of the river called Şeytan deresi; the site is now occupied by the town of KızkalesiMersin Province,Turkey.
The town of Corycus is mentioned by Livy, and by Pliny, and Pomponius Mela, and Stephanus of Byzantium. In antiquity Corycus was an important harbor and commercial town. It was the port of Seleucia, where, in 191 BCE, the fleet of Antiochus the Great was defeated by the Romans. In the Roman times it preserved its ancient laws; the emperors usually kept a fleet there to watch over the pirates. Corycus was also a mint in antiquity and some of its coins survive.

Corycus was controlled by the Byzantine EmpireJustinian I restored the public baths and a hospital. Alexios I Komnenos re-equipped the fortress, which had been dismantled. At the beginning of the 12th century the Byzantines built a supplementary castle on a small island. 
This castle was later called "maidens castle", because it was told that a king held his daughter here in captivity until she was killed by a venomous snake. It was prophesied she would die by a snake bite. So she was taken to the sea castle to protect her, but a serpent was taken by basket to the castle, she was bitten and died. 
Corycus was conquered by the Armenians soon after it was rebuilt by the Byzantines. The Armenians held it until the end of the 14th century, as the last stronghold of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia. The city was then handed over to the Lusignans of Cyprus. It was taken by the Mamelukes, and again by Peter I of Cyprus. In the late 14th century it fell again to the Turks. From 1448 or 1454 it belonged alternately to the Karamanlis, the Egyptians, the Karamanlis a second time, and finally to the Osmanlis.

Maiden Castle  -  Castle in the Sea

The castles are located near Mersin on the south coast of Turkey.

The ruins of the city are extensive. Among them are a triumphal arch, a necropolis with a beautiful Christian tomb, sarcophagi, etc. The two medieval castles, one on the shore, the other in an islet, connected by a ruined pier, are partially preserved; the former was reputed impregnable. 
The walls of the castle on the mainland contain many pieces of columns; and a mole of great unhewn rocks projects from one angle of the fortress about a hundred yards across the bay. Three churches are also found, one decorated with frescoes. The walls of the ancient city may still be traced, and there appear to be sufficient remains to invite a careful examination of the spot.

 Korykos Castle on the mainland. 

Kizkalesi Castle or Maiden's Castle, locally known as Kizkalesi, lies on a small island, some 400 meters from the coast, in the bay of the town with the same name in the province of Mersin in Turkey.
Together with the opposite Korykos Castle on the mainland, this sea castle protected the port of Korykos and of course their histories are linked closely together and almost identical.

In ancient times there was an antique harbor city named Korykos or Corycus here. It is possible that the site of Korykos was heavily fortified prior to the Arab invasions, but there is no evidence to confirm this.
Around 1099 Korykos was conquered by the Byzantines. The erection of the castles can probably be credited to the reign of the Byzantine emperor Alexios I Komnenos. Except for reconstruction during and after the Armenian period of occupation in the late 12th century (far more extensive in the sea castle than in the land castle), the circuit walls and towers of both castles date from the early 12th century.

The emperor's daughter, Anna Comnena, tells us that the royal eunuch Eustathius was dispatched as an admiral and was directed to fortify Korykos. The strategy was to defend it from any possible seizure by the Crusader Bohemund I de Guiscard. A large garrison was maintained at Korykos under the command of a certain Strategus Strabo. Exactly when the Armenians occupied the Byzantine castles at Korykos is unknown.
By 1198/99 the site seems to have been under the control of Leo I, King of Armenian Cilicia, as Simon, the Baron of Korykos, was in attendance at his coronation. Following Vahram's brief tenure as Lord of Korykos (1210-12), the Hethumid Baron Oshin held the position until the late 1260's. In the 4th quarter of the 13th century the Armenian historian Hethum followed Grigoris as master of the port. Some years later he died tragically in a battle against the Mamluks. In 1318 Hethum's son, another Oshin, took 300 troops from the garrison at Korykos and succeeded (temporarily) in driving out a band of Turks.

In 1360 Peter I, the King of Cyprus, assumed control over Korykos when it became clear that the Mamluks were soon to conquer all of Cilicia. Robert of Lusignan was dispatched from Cyprus to administer the port. With Cypriot assistance the residents of Korykos were able to repulse a Karamanid attack in 1367. This fortified port proved to be a profitable toll station until its capture by the Karamanids in 1448.
Since Kizkalesi castle is protected by a natural water barrier as well as the formidable shoals of the island, the Byzantine constructed only a single, somewhat geometrical circuit with square towers. The smooth ashlar in the castle consists entirely of materials taken from the neighboring abandoned late antique city. This original construction survives only at the south and east and is in sharp contrast to the Armenian reconstruction (with rounded salients) at the northwest. The plan conforms to the topography of the island.

(Maiden's Castle)                (Wikipedia - Corycus)

A plan of Kizkalesi Castle taken from 'The Fortifications of Armenian Cilicia' by RW. Edwards.

A plan of Korykos Castle taken from 'The Fortifications of Armenian Cilicia' by RW. Edwards.

Sunday, May 13, 2012

The Second Battle of Marcellae

Medieval Bulgarian warriors. 
Khan Asparuh crosses the Danube in 680 AD.

The Second Battle of Marcellae (792 AD)

  • “The Bulgarians are a huge, mighty and warlike people that have subdued all their neighboring nations. One horseman of theirs can face 100 or 200 horsemen of the infidels. When they go to war they form lines – in front are the archers with their bows, and behind are the women and children…”
    Abu al-Hassan Ali ibn Hussein ibn Ali al-Massoudi, 10th Century AD

The greatest enemies of the Eastern Roman Empire were the Arabs, the Turks and the Bulgarians.  This article deals with the early invasion and establishment of the Bulgarian Empire on Roman soil directly up against Constantinople itself. 
The Romans and Bulgarians clashed at the Second Battle of Marcellae  It took place in 792 at Markeli, near the modern town of Karnobat in south eastern Bulgaria. It is not to be confused with the earlier battle at the same place.
In the last quarter of the 8th century Bulgaria overcame the internal political crisis after the end of the rule of the Dulo. The khans Telerig and Kardam managed to consolidate the central authority and put an end of the quarrels among the nobility.

Roman Emperor Constantine VI (right of the cross) presiding over
Second Council of Nicaea

The Bulgarians finally had the opportunity to intensify their campaigns in Macedonia and annex the region and its Slavic population to their state. In 789 they penetrated deep into the valley of the Struma river and heavily defeated the Byzantines, killing the strategos of Thrace Filites. 
In order to distract the Bulgarian attention from Macedonia, the Byzantine emperor Constantine VI started a campaign in northern Thrace in April 791. The armies met near the fortress of Provat (20 km east of Odrin) and the Byzantines were forced to retreat but their defeat was not decisive and in the following year the campaign was renewed.
Forces Involved

It is maddening for a historian to try and deal with so many of the Byzantine wars because there is so very little information on events that were often of major importance.  In the Battle of Marcellae there is next to no information.  So one must speculate. 
ROMANS   -   At the head of his troops, the Emperor himself was marching directly into enemy held and fortified territory.  It is fair to say that all available troops would be with the Emperor and this would be considered a major campaign.
Historians speculate that the Roman army would have numbered in the 80,000 to 90,000 range at this point.  Most of the forces would be stationed along the frontiers facing the Arabs or Persia.  Other troops would be in Greece, Italy, the Crimea and Balkan frontier posts.  The Emperor might head an invading army of perhaps 15,000 to 20,000 men.  That number was often considered a standard size for major operations.
The Roman force would have been a combination of infantry and cavalry units near Constantinople.  The full-time units were the tagmata.  They were the professional standing army of the Empire.
Eastern Roman Infantry
The tagmata were exclusively heavy cavalry units and formed the core of the imperial army on campaign, augmented by the provincial levies of thematic troops who were more concerned with local defense.

BULGARIANS   -   There is no way to know numbers, but it is very likely the Bulgarians would have fielded a force perhaps equal to the Romans.
The army consisted of a Bulgar cavalry and a Slavic infantry. The core of the Bulgarian army was the heavy cavalry, which consisted of 12,000–30,000 heavily armed riders. At its height in the 9th and 10th centuries, it was one of the most formidable military forces in Europe and was feared by its enemies. There are several documented cases of Byzantine commanders abandoning an invasion because of a reluctance to confront the Bulgarian army on its home territory.
The Bulgars were well versed in the use of stratagems. They often held a strong cavalry unit in reserve, which would attack the enemy at an opportune moment. They also sometimes concentrated their free horses behind their battle formation to avoid surprise attacks from the rear.They used ambushes and feigned retreats, during which they rode with their backs to the horse, firing clouds of arrows on the enemy. If the enemy pursued disorganized, they would turn back and fiercely attack them.
The Bulgarian army was well armed according to the Avar model: the soldiers had asabre or a sword, a long spear and a bow with an arrow-quiver on the back. On the saddle they hung a round shield, a mace and a lasso, which the Bulgarians calledarkani. On their decorated belts the soldiers carried the most necessary objects such as flints and steel, a knife, a cup and a needle case. The heavy cavalry was supplied with metal armour and helmets. The horses were also armoured. Armour was of two types — chain-mail and plate armour. The commanders had belts with golden or silver buckles which corresponded to their rank and title.
The infantry of the newly formed state was composed mainly of Slavs, who were generally lightly armed soldiers, although their chieftains usually had small cavalry retinues. The Slavic footmen were equipped with swords, spears, bows and wooden or leather shields. However, they were less disciplined and less effective than the Bulgar cavalry.

VIDEO  -  Troops of Eastern Roman Empire-681 AD.  This clip is from a Bulgarian Movie made in 1981.  No CG or special effects are used.  These are real people marching.  It helps bring alive what it must have been like to see a Byzantine army on the march.

The Battle
In the summer of 792 Constantine VI led his army north and on 20 July was confronted by the Bulgarians under Khan Kardam near the border castle Marcelae
The Khan had built ramparts blocking the roads to the Rish Pass and the capital Pliska.  Rather than seeking out the Roman army the Khan awaited an attack in his fortified positions.
For several days the emperor did not dare to attack but by the end of July he was convinced by "false astrologists" (according to the Byzantine chronicler Theophanes the Confessor) that the stars boded victory.  He attacked the Bulgarians in their prepared positions.
Victorious Bulgar warrior with captive,
featured on an 
ewer from the
Treasure of Nagyszentmiklos.

Before the beginning of the battle, while awaiting the Byzantine assault, the Bulgarian ruler secretly placed part of his cavalry behind the hills surrounding the battlefield.
The Byzantines, naturally, attacked in battle formation, but the uneven terrain led to a certain degree to its disruption, which was immediately used by Khan Kardam and the Bulgarian forces counter-attacked the enemy.  The Bulgarian counterattack was a great success against the disorganized Romans.

The hidden Bulgarian cavalry went round the Byzantines and cut their way back to their fortified camp and the fortress of Marcellae.  The Bulgarians took the supplies, the treasury and the tent of the emperor. They chased Constantine VI to Constantinople killing a great number of soldiers. Many Byzantine commanders and officers perished in the battle.
A weapon called arkani was used by the Bulgarians in this battle: the arkani consisted of a long pole with an attachment similar to a lasso at one end. It was an excellent weapon against cavalry as the rider could easily be pulled out of the saddle by a skilled warrior, armed with the arkani.

Khans of the Bulgarian Empire.

The Aftermath
It was a total and humiliating defeat for the Romans.  Constantine VI was forced to conclude peace with Kardam and had to pay tribute. Four years later (in 796) the emperor stopped the paying leading to a new war in Thrace which ended without a decisive battle.  The hostilities between Bulgaria and Byzantium continued under Kardam's successor Krum.
The victory had great political significance. The decades of crisis were finally overcome, the Byzantines were forced once again to pay tribute to the Khans. Bulgaria entered the 9th century consolidated, stronger and united which was an important factor for the string of victories scored by Krum against the Byzantines.

VIDEO  -  681 AD: The Glory of Khan (Bulgarian: 681 г.: Величието на хана) is an 1981 three-part Bulgarian historical action and drama film telling the story of khan Asparuh and the events around the founding of the medieval Bulgarian state in 681 AD. It was shot and released on the occasion of the 13-century anniversary of Bulgaria.

The fortress of Markeli's Well Tower on the banks of the Mochuritsa.
Markeli acquired its strategic importance in the late 7th century, when the establishment of the First Bulgarian Empire and its expansion turned it into a vital frontier stronghold just south of the Balkan Mountains. It would often change hands between Bulgarians and Byzantines, who would use it as a favourable starting point for military campaigns southwards and northwards respectively.

Markeli first came under Bulgarian rule in 705, when it, together with the whole region of 
Zagore, was ceded to Bulgaria by Justinian II.

Ruins of the basilica within the castle.
Archaeological research of the fortress has been conducted since 1986. It has revealed that the castle was built in Late Antiquity (the early Byzantine period).  

The fortifications were constructed out of crushed stones with integrated rows of bricks and are thought to date to the reign of either Anastasius I (491–518) or Justinian I (527–565), i.e. the late 5th to mid-6th century. The ramparts were up to 10 metres (33 ft) high and had over 3-metre (9.8 ft) ditches before them.   he entire fortress, including the embankments dating to the early 9th century, had an area of 173 acres (0.70 km2).

The ruins of a Christian church (basilica) that have been unearthed in the eastern part of the castle are equally old as the fortifications. A well tower was positioned in the vicinity of the river in order to control access to the fortress and provide water for the defenders. An ancient bridge crossed the river near the tower, and an underground passage served as another way for the inhabitants to enter or leave Markeli.  

Overview of the castle ruins.
In 792, Markeli was once more in the centre of a major Byzantine–Bulgarian conflict.   The second battle of Marcellae came during a long period of aggression between Byzantium and Bulgaria, with Bulgarian ruler Kardam and Byzantine Emperor Constantine VI each invading foreign territory in the past few years. Due to strategic errors, the Byzantines suffered a heavy blow in this battle.   

The Bulgarians and Romans at 800 AD.
The invasion of the Bulgarian people into the Eastern Roman Empire was one of
the greatest military challenges faced by any nation.  The Byzantine-Bulgarian Wars
lasted for nearly 800 years. 

Saturday, May 5, 2012

13-Year-Old Student Tells Metropolitan: 'Your Map Is Wrong'

During a September visit to New York's Metropolitan Museum of Art, 13-year-old Benjamin Lerman Coady noticed an error in one of it maps of the Justinian conquests. He notified the staff and in January he received a letter from Dr. Helen Evans the museum's Mary and Michael Jaharis curator for Byzantine art (shown with him here) notifying him that he was correct in his assertion and the map would be updated.

Is your 13 year old smarter than a museum curator?

  • Carthage and Spain were left off the Metropolitan Museum's map of the Eastern Roman Empire.

The Hartford Courant:    Every so often, a visitor at The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City questions the accuracy of an exhibit, but Helen Evans, one of the museum's curators, says not all of them are right.

Benjamin Lerman Coady, however, was.
Benjamin, 13, of West Hartford, is a seventh-grader at Renbrook School. Fascinated by history, he reads ahead in his textbooks. His mother sees his passion for the past and tries to provide an environment where Benjamin feels free to explore his interests.
That's how mother and son ended up at The Metropolitan Museum of Art last summer.
"It's more a parent seeing the world through a child's eyes," said Benjamin's mother, Joanne Lerman.
Benjamin wasn't quite sure what to expect at the art museum. He and his mother had visited the American Museum of Natural History a few times, but the Metropolitan was a new experience. Benjamin said he thought he'd see "just art on a wall."
He said he quickly learned that The Metropolitan is about more than just paintings — it's also about history.
While touring the museum, Benjamin and his mother stopped to look at the permanent exhibit about the Byzantine Empire — a part of history Benjamin had just studied in school.

The Byzantine map at the Metropolitan Museum left off the Roman
holdings in Spain and Carthage.

A map of the empire in the 6th century was on display, and Benjamin said he immediately began to check the dates. The map was supposed to show when the empire was at its largest, but Spain and part of Africa were missing, he said.
Benjamin told a museum docent about his observation, who instructed him to fill out a form at the front desk.
"The front desk didn't believe me," he said, explaining that he never expected to hear back from the museum. "I'm only a kid."
In September, he received a letter from the museum's senior vice president for external affairs. It said that his comments were being forwarded to the museum's medieval art department for further review.
A few months later — in January, Evans, the museum's Mary and Michael Jaharis curator for Byzantine art, sent Benjamin an email: "You are, of course, correct about the boundaries of the Byzantine Empire under Justinian," she wrote.
She invited Benjamin back to the museum to meet with her.
Benjamin said he was surprised that the museum readily admitted making a mistake, and he said the process taught him a valuable lesson.
"If you have a question, always ask it," he said. "Always take chances."
As for the error, Evans said this week that the museum is still working to fix it.

(The Hartford Courant)